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CNC Machining Center Maintenance

【Abstract】The correct operation and maintenance of CNC equipment can prevent the abnormal wear of the machine tool and avoid sudden failure of the machine tool. The meticulous maintenance of the machine tool can maintain the long-term stability of the machining accuracy of the machine tool and prolong the service life of the machine tool. This work must be highly valued and implemented from the management level of the factory.

Maintenance related person maintain
1, the operator is responsible for the use of equipment and basic maintenance;
2, equipment maintenance personnel responsible for equipment maintenance and necessary maintenance;
3. The workshop management staff is responsible for the supervision of the entire workshop's operators and equipment maintenance.

Basic requirements for the use of numerical control equipment
1. The numerical control equipment requires to avoid places with excessive humidity, dust, and corrosive gases.
2, to avoid direct sunlight and other heat radiation, precision CNC equipment should be far away from the vibration of large equipment, such as presses, forging equipment, etc.;
3, the operating temperature of the equipment should be controlled between 15 degrees and 35 degrees. Precision machining temperature should be controlled at about 20 degrees, and temperature fluctuations should be strictly controlled;
4. In order to avoid large fluctuations in power supply (greater than plus or minus 10%) and possible transient interference signals, CNC equipment is generally powered by dedicated lines.(For example, separate from the low voltage distribution room for the use of CNC machine tools). Adding voltage regulators, etc., can reduce the impact of power quality and electrical interference.

Daily maintenance of precision machining
1. After starting up, it must be warmed up for about 10 minutes, and then processed; long-term unused machines should extend the warm-up time;
2. Check if the oil road is unimpeded;
3、Before shutting down, place the worktable and saddle in the center of the machine (move the three-axis travel to the middle position of each axis);
4, the machine remains dry and clean.
CNC machining Center Maintenance

Daily maintenance
1. Clean and clean machine dust and iron chips daily:
Including machine control panel, spindle taper, tool cart, tool head and taper shank, Knife blade magazine and cartridge arm, the turret; XY axis sheet metal shields, flexible hoses inside the machine, tank chain devices, chip flutes, etc.

2. Check the height of the lubricant level to ensure the lubrication of the machine tool;
3, check whether the coolant in the coolant tank is enough, and add in time;
4, check the air pressure is normal;
5, check the spindle cone air blowing is normal, with a clean cotton cloth wipe the spindle cone hole, and spray light oil;
6, clean knife pockets and knives, especially knife claws;
7, check all lights, warning lights are normal;
8. Inspect the hydraulic unit pipe for leakage.
9, the machine daily cleaning work after the completion of the work;
10. Keep the environment around the machine clean and tidy.

Weekly maintenance
1. Clean the heat exchanger air filter, cooling pump, lubricant pump filter;
2. Check whether the pull bolt is loose and whether the blade is clean;
3, check whether the three axis mechanical origin is offset;
4. Check whether the tool changer arm movement or tool magazine rotation is smooth;
5, if there is oil cooler check oil-cooled oil, such as below the mark line, please add oil and cold oil;
6. Clean the impurities and moisture in the compressed gas, check the amount of oil in the oil mist separator, check whether the work of each solenoid valve is normal, and check the airtightness in the pneumatic system, because the air system has a direct impact on the quality of the air system. Knife and lubrication system;
7, to prevent dust and dirt entering the inside of the numerical control device. In the air of the machine shop, oil mist, dust and even metal powder are generally present. Once they fall on the circuit board or electronic device in the CNC system, the insulation resistance between the components can easily be reduced, and even the components and circuit boards are damaged. .

Monthly maintenance
1. Check the lubrication condition of axle track, the track surface must ensure good lubrication;
2, check, clean the limit switch and touch the block;
3, check the knife cylinder oil cup oil is enough, in time to add;
4. Check if the signs and warnings on the machine are clear and exist.

Half-year maintenance
1. Unscrew the shaft chip protection cover, clean the shaft oil pipe connector, the ball screw guide screw, and the three-axis limit switch, and check if it is normal. Check whether the hard rail scraping brush of each axis is in good condition;
2. Check whether the servo motor and head of each axis are operating normally and whether there is abnormal sound;
3, replace the hydraulic unit, knife deceleration mechanism oil;
4, test the gap of each axis, if necessary, adjust the compensation;
5, the dust cleaning electric box (to ensure that the machine is in a closed state);
6, a comprehensive inspection of all contacts, connectors, sockets, switches are normal;
7, check all keys are sensitive and normal;
8, check and adjust the mechanical level;
9. Clean the cutting tank and replace the cutting fluid.
shaft motor and the lead screw

Professional maintenance or repair of the Year
Note: Professional maintenance or repairs should be performed by a professional engineer.
1. The grounding protection system should have perfect continuity to ensure personal safety;
2. Periodically inspect vital components such as circuit breakers, contactors, single-phase or three-phase arc extinguishers. If the wiring is loose, if the noise is too large, find out the reasons and eliminate hidden dangers;
3, to ensure the normal operation of the cooling fan inside the cabinet, otherwise it may cause the vital component damage;
4. The fuse is blown and the air switch trips frequently. Find out the cause and eliminate it in time.

5, check the vertical accuracy of each axis, adjust the geometric accuracy of the machine. Restore or reach the requirements of the machine.Because geometric accuracy is the basis of the overall performance of the machine. For example, if the verticality of XZ and YZ is not good, the concentricity and symmetry of the machined workpiece will be affected. The poor verticality of the spindle to the table will affect the parallelism of the machined workpiece. Therefore, the restoration of geometric accuracy is the focus of our maintenance;
6. Inspect each shaft motor and the lead screw for wear and clearance, and inspect each shaft for support bearing damage. When the coupling or bearing is damaged, it will increase the noise of the machine running, affect the precision of the machine's transmission, damage the seal mandrel cooling sealing ring, lead to leakage of cutting fluid, and seriously affect the life of the screw and spindle;
7. Check the protective cover of each shaft and replace it if necessary. The protective cover does not directly accelerate the wear of the guide rail. If there is a large deformation, it will not only increase the load of the machine tool, but also cause greater damage to the guide rail.
8, lead screw alignment, due to some users in the machine after a collision or plug iron gap caused by lead screw deformation, a direct impact on the machine's machining accuracy. We first loosen the lead screw to make it in a natural state, and then follow the maintenance procedures to install the lead screw to ensure that the lead screw is not subjected to tangential forces during movement so that the lead screw is also in a natural state during processing;
9. Check and adjust the belt drive system of the machine tool spindle to properly adjust the tightness of the V-belt to prevent the machine tool from slipping or losing during machining. If necessary, replace the spindle V-belt, and check the pressure belt of the 1000r/min spindle's high and low gear, and how much the wheel cylinder oil is. If necessary add, short of oil will cause problems during the conversion of low-grade, severely affects the surface roughness during milling and reduces the cutting torque;
10, cleaning and adjustment tool magazine. Magazine rotation adjustment to make it parallel with the table, replace the circlip if necessary, adjust the angle of the main axle directional bridge and the magazine rotation coefficient, and add lubricating grease at each moving part;
11. Prevent the system from overheating: It should be checked whether the various cooling fans on the CNC cabinet work properly. Check whether there is blockage in the duct filter. If there is too much dust on the filter screen and it is not cleared in time, the temperature inside the CNC cabinet will be too high.
12. Regular maintenance of input/output devices of CNC system: Check whether the transmission signal line of the machine tool is damaged, whether the interface, the screw nut of the connector is loosened, the network cable is inserted securely, and the router is clean and maintained.
13. Regular inspection and replacement of DC motor brushes:
Excessive wear of DC motor brushes can affect the performance of the motor and even cause damage to the motor. For this purpose, motor brushes shall be inspected and replaced regularly, CNC lathes, CNC milling machines, and machining centers shall be inspected once a year;
14, regular inspection and replacement of storage batteries: General CNC system for CMOS RAM memory devices with rechargeable battery maintenance circuit to ensure that the system can maintain its memory content during power. In normal circumstances, even if it has not failed, it should be replaced once a year to ensure the normal operation of the system. Replacement of the battery should be performed under the power supply status of the CNC system to prevent the loss of information in the RAM during the replacement.
15. Clean the electrical components inside the control cabinet, check, and fasten the fastening status of the terminal; Clean and clean the CNC control module, circuit board, fan, air filter, heat sink, etc.; clean the internal components of the operation panel, circuit board, fan, and check the fastening status of the connector.
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