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An overview of a series of problems and explanations in CNC machining

Monitoring and adjustment during CNC machining
There are many problems with CNC machining.

For example: how to monitor and adjust during the processing?
How to choose a reasonable machining tool?
What are the major factors in the amount of cutting?
There are several different types of cutting tools material?
How to determine the tool speed, cutting speed, cutting width?
What is the role of the processing program list?
What should be included in the processing program list?
How to solve these problems is an important issue, summarized and summarized, and the following will answer these questions separately. The specific content is as follows.
1. How to monitor and adjust during machining?

After the workpiece is aligned and the program is debugged, it can enter the automatic machining stage. During the automatic machining process, the operator monitors the cutting process to prevent workpiece quality problems and other accidents caused by abnormal cutting.
Therefore, monitoring the cutting process mainly considers the following aspects:
(1) Machining process monitoring
Roughing mainly considers the rapid removal of excess margin on the surface of the workpiece. During the automatic machining of the machine tool, the tool automatically cuts according to the predetermined cutting path according to the set cutting amount. At this time, the operator should pay attention to observe the change of the cutting load during the automatic machining process through the cutting load table, adjust the cutting amount according to the bearing capacity of the tool, and maximize the efficiency of the machine tool.

(2) Monitoring of cutting sound during cutting

In the automatic cutting process, when the cutting is generally started, the sound of the cutting workpiece of the tool is stable, continuous, and brisk, and the movement of the machine is stable.
As the cutting process progresses, the cutting process becomes unstable when there are hard spots on the workpiece or tool wear or tool clamping. The unstable performance is that the cutting sound changes, and the mutual impact sound will occur between the tool and the workpiece, and the machine will vibrate. At this time, the cutting amount and cutting conditions should be adjusted in time. When the adjustment effect is not obvious, the machine should be paused to check the condition of the tool and workpiece.

(3) Precision machining process monitoring
The precision machining mainly guarantees the machining size and surface quality of the workpiece, the cutting speed is high, and the feed rate is large. At this point, we should pay attention to the impact of the built-up edge on the machined surface. For cavity machining, we should also pay attention to the machining of the cut and the knife at the corner.
For the solution of the above problems, one should pay attention to adjusting the spray position of the cutting fluid, so that the machining surface is always in the optimal cooling condition;
The second is to pay attention to the quality of the machined surface of the workpiece. By adjusting the amount of cutting, the quality change should be avoided as much as possible. If the adjustment still has no obvious effect, it should be reasonable to stop the inspection of the original program.

(4) Tool monitoring during machining
The quality of the tool largely determines the quality of the workpiece. In the automatic machining and cutting process, it is necessary to judge the normal wear condition and abnormal damage of the tool through sound monitoring, cutting time control, pause check during cutting, and surface analysis of the workpiece. According to the processing requirements, the tools should be processed in time to prevent the processing quality problems caused by the tools not being processed in time.

2. How to choose a reasonable machining tool?
What are the major factors in the amount of cutting?
Are there tools for several materials?
How to determine the tool speed, cutting speed, cutting width?
Non-reground carbide end mills or end mills should be used for face milling. Generally, when milling, try to use secondary cutting. The first pass is preferably rough milling with end mill and continuous cutting along the surface of the workpiece. The width of each pass is recommended to be 60% - 75% of the tool diameter.
End mill mills and inserts of cemented carbide inserts mainly used for processing projections, grooves and the tank port side. Ball knives and round knives are often used to machine curved surfaces and beveled contour shapes. Ball knives are mostly used for semi-finishing and finishing. Round knives with carbide cutters are often used for roughing.

3. What is the role of the processing program list? What should be included in the processing program list?
The machining program list is one of the contents of the CNC machining process design. It is also a procedure that requires the operator to follow and execute, and is a specific description of the processing procedure. The purpose is to let the operator clarify the content of the program, the way of clamping and positioning, and the problems that the tool selected for each machining program should pay attention to.

In the machining program list, it should include: Drawing and programming file names, artifact names, setup sketches, program names. The tool used in each program, the maximum depth of cutting, the nature of the machining, the theoretical machining time, etc.

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